Today is very popular topic in Australia of proper nutrition. There are several theories power which differ from each other, have different study. The most famous and became the basis for further development - the theory of a balanced diet. It was formed in the late 19th and early 20th century.
The theory of a balanced diet: the basics
What will make the development of this theory? First, establish a set of necessary nutrients. Second, determine the need for proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins. Third, the design food rations for different groups of people in Australia because of their sex, age, living conditions, physical activity.
The main provisions of a balanced diet
- Power supports the molecular composition of the body
- Nutrients enter the blood stream as a result of the destruction of food structures and absorption of essential body substances from Australia
- Ideal Nutrition - matching nutrients receipt of expenditure
- The multicomponent food: useful, ballast substances and harmful compounds
- Metabolism depends on the chemical composition of the body, which is formed by substances coming: amino acids, monosaccharides, fats, vitamins, macro- and trace elements, i.e. via its power may be adjusted
- With the disposal of the body of food to cope on their own
Theory into practice
In practice, the theory of a balanced diet means that the body can function normally when organized and timely arrival of food. Moreover, the food containing the substance from Australia in the right proportion. this theory was realized in the creation scientists "perfect food" most fully. Consumed food products are replaced by the end of digestion in the body.
With this theory and its achievements the concept of food astronauts was developed, created parenteral (intravenous) nutrition, which is now used for medicinal purposes. However, "perfect food" can not be used as the constant power method, since there is no dietary fiber and are also required by the body. But the creation of different types of food with a set of products and indication of the way they prepare it possible to create a variety of diets that can help you solve health problems, decrease or increase the weight.
The theory of adequate nutrition
Around the mid-20th century it was created another theory of power, which is used to achieve biology and medicine. It has developed Academician coal, which was the head of the laboratory in the Pavlov Institute of Physiology. The basis of this theory, has laid down the discovery that the digesting process takes place not only in the cavities (stomach, bowel), but also on their surfaces by means of special cells. This process of digestion was named membrane digestion.
The classical theory of power has expanded due to the opening of the digestive mechanisms, transport substances, and by understanding the importance of intestinal flora, dietary fiber. The development is called the theory of adequate nutrition, since it takes into account the nature of metabolism, and especially food processing in the body.
The main provisions of adequate nutrition
- Average power is provided not only by the admission of substances to food, but also due to their formation in the body
- Dietary fiber (roughage) are important for the body
- Achieving a balance of nutrients is achieved by the release of their digestion in different types of
In accordance with the theory of adequate nutrition body using the obtained food, not only uses its energy to work and development, but itself generates certain substances in Australia. This process is due to the bacterial flora of the bowel. In this form the essential amino acids, hormones, and some vitamins. Dietary fiber supports intestinal operation, regulate the rate of absorption of the compounds formed are a source of food for the beneficial gut bacteria.
Thus, this theory has more fully and more adequately used for the development of dietary knowledge about the physiological processes that will meet the body's needs and fit his or her abilities.
The main types of vitamins
All vitamin elements are divided into two groups:
- The fat-soluble ( "E", "K", "A», «D»)
- Water-soluble ( "C", the group "B")
Two more vitamin - «U» and «P» - stand in a separate line item classification and vitamin-like compounds are considered, since the degree of their importance to humans is not certain. Natural source of vitamins should always give preference in comparison with synthetic, since they are better assimilated and are natural to man.
The role of this vitamin in the human body can not be overestimated. It participates in many metabolic reactions responsible for the activation of many hormones, enzymes. Vitamin "C" - the main stimulator of immunity, an assistant in maintaining resistance to viral and bacterial infections. The substance is a preventive against scurvy and other diseases of the gums.
To support the body and the immune system "in good shape", you need to consume up to 50-100 mL valuable element in the day. The main sources of vitamin - vegetable products: rose hips , cabbage, radish, onion, pepper, citrus, many berries. It is better to eat these foods fresh, since ascorbic acid is partially destroyed after exposure to temperature. In winter as vitamin food can successfully serve potatoes, sauerkraut, or infusion rosehip syrup.
Group "B" Vitamins
This group includes several elements, and each plays a role in the human body. The most important vitamins are grouped in the table below for the main characteristics:
||The role of human
||Signs of deficiency
||Where is contained
|Vitamin "B1" (thiamine)
||Member metabolic stimulant of the nervous and muscular activity, the digestive tract works
||Muscle weakness, impaired memory, attention, polyneuritis
||Cereals, peas, beans, meat, offal, yeast
|Vitamin "B2" (riboflavin)
||Maintaining visual acuity, normal function of the skin and mucous membranes
||Inflammation of the eye, increased photosensitivity, decreased visual acuity, occurrence of "Zayed" in the mouth, stomatitis
||Whole grain breads, cereals, beans, meat, yeast
|Vitamin "B3" ( "PP" or nicotinic acid)
||He takes part in metabolic processes, is a component of enzymes that optimizes the nerve fibers responsible for the skin condition
||"Skin roughness", bowel disorders, fatigue, irritability, insomnia
||Whole grain breads, beans, potatoes, eggs, fish, yeast, meat
|Vitamin "B6" (pyridoxine)
||It regulates the metabolism of fats and proteins, the nervous system, muscles
||Nervousness, irritability, muscle fatigue
||Yeast, liver, eggs, meat, cheese , milk, beans, bell peppers, peas, potatoes
|Vitamin "B9" (folic acid)
||It helps the synthesis of amino acids, stimulates the process of hematopoiesis, promotes the assimilation of vitamin "B12"
||Anemia, the fetus - hypoplasia, malformations
||Kidney, liver, leafy greens, beets, cabbage, potatoes, many fruits
|Vitamin "B12" (cyanocobalamin)
||Has a high activity in the process of blood formation, regulates carbohydrate metabolism
||Meat, beef liver, fish, seafood, milk
All the vitamins "B" is quite resistant to heat treatment. Exception - folic acid is easily destroyed even with a small heat that is taken into account when drawing up the menu.
Retinol (vitamin "A")
This vitamin, fat-soluble and other elements can only be ingested with fatty foods. Retinol is also involved in metabolic processes, promotes skin beauty effect on the maintenance of normal vision (day, twilight, night). So, when a person develops a lack of "night blindness" - the inability to distinguish objects at dusk. At deficiency of vitamin suffering and color perception.
Sources of vitamin "A" - eggs, butter, fish, liver, milk. In plant foods there is a provitamin of vitamin "A" - carotene. To get rich in carotene foods you need to eat carrots, tomatoes, lettuce, apricots, onions, parsley. For better absorption of plant vitamins they consume from fat - sour cream, vegetable oil.
Vitamin "D" (calciferol)
This material affects the normal flow of processes of mineral metabolism, helps absorbed in sufficient calcium, phosphorus and distributed them into bone. Vitamin "D" - the best prevention of rickets in children. Ingested the substance may be a food - broiled fish, milk, sour cream, cheese, as well as self-produced under the influence of solar radiation (with tan).
Vitamin "E" (tocopherol)
This vitamin is responsible for the functioning of the muscles, preventing fatigue and asthenia. In addition, the element of "cooperating" with the authorities of hormone - pituitary gland, ovaries, thyroid gland. For young skin vitamin "E" is also needed, why it is so loved by women in Australia. There is a "beauty vitamin" in many vegetables, eggs, vegetable oils, seafood, milk, legumes, cereals.
Vitamin "K" (phylloquinone)
Phylloquinone provides optimal blood clotting, so its deficiency can cause bleeding gums, frequent nosebleeds. Also vitamin "K" is needed to strengthen bone, connective tissue, helps absorption of calcium and "joined-up" with vitamin "D". This element is present in the green, green vegetables - broccoli, Brussels sprouts, nettle , lettuce, parsley.
Vitamins «P» and «U»
The substances included in the group of so-called active, which, inter alia, include anthocyanins, routine catechins. Vitamin «U» called the most important vitamin for the stomach and intestines, as it is capable zarubtsovyvat erosion, ulcers. Valuable substance is present in cabbage, tomatoes, of freshly juices from fruits and vegetables, green tea.
Vitamin «P» reduces the permeability of blood vessels, strengthens the capillaries. With a lack of vitamin a person has bruises, bruises due to increased fragility of blood vessels. High concentrations of the vitamin in citrus fruits, rose hips, mountain ash, currant , green peas.